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Endocrinology
Thyroid Eye Disease

Patients with Graves’ disease show high symptomatic rates of dry eye disease

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Patients with Graves’ disease, especially those with inactive thyroid eye disease (TED), exhibit a high prevalence of ocular surface disease (OSD), particularly dry eye disease (DED), according to a study.

The study highlights the significance of incorporating both qualitative and quantitative tools, including tear matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9) testing, to assess ocular health comprehensively.

The research involved a sample of 65 individuals, categorized into 4 groups: 17 with active TED, 16 with inactive TED, 16 with Graves’ disease without ophthalmopathy, and 16 healthy controls. Patients were classified into 3 subtypes of DED: aqueous tear deficiency, meibomian gland dysfunction, and mixed dry eye.

The study found that inactive TED was a significant factor associated with DED, with a prevalence of 87.5% compared to 33.3% in healthy controls. Meibomian gland dysfunction was also notably more prevalent among individuals with TED than in the healthy control group. Although no significant differences were observed in various ophthalmological parameters, active TED patients exhibited more intense conjunctival redness compared to patients with Graves’ disease without ophthalmopathy. The qualitative MMP-9 test was notably positive in both eyes among active TED patients more frequently than in other groups.

Reference
Riguetto CM, Barbosa EB, Atihe CC, et al. Ocular Surface Disease Related to the Inflammatory and Non-Inflammatory Phases of Thyroid Eye Disease. Clin Ophthalmol. 2023;17:3465-3475. doi: 10.2147/OPTH.S430861. PMID: 38026592; PMCID: PMC10657741.

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