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Growth Hormone Deficiency

Growth hormone therapy enhances body composition, adipokine profiles in children with GHD

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One-year on growth hormone (GH) therapy in growth hormone-deficient (GHD) children significantly improves their body composition, adipokine profiles, and serum phosphate levels, according to a study. The therapy leads to reduced body fat, improved lipid profiles, increased bone mineral density, and altered levels of key hormones like leptin, adiponectin, and ghrelin.

The prospective observational study included 42 prepubertal, non-obese children with GHD, assessing changes in adipokine profiles, acylated/unacylated ghrelin (AG/UAG), FGF23, and body composition over 1 year of GH replacement therapy. Data collected before the therapy were compared with measurements taken at 6 and 12 months into the treatment.

Participants showed significant growth acceleration. Total body fat decreased, lipid profiles improved, and total bone mineral density (BMD) increased notably. Leptin and UAG levels decreased, while adiponectin and AG levels increased significantly. Plasma FGF23 and insulin growth factor 1 (IGF1) levels increased, along with serum phosphate. However, the rise in FGF23 did not impact BMD but was strongly associated with IGF1 and height standard deviation. GH therapy influenced changes in leptin and adiponectin independently of body composition, but not ghrelin.

The researchers concluded that further research is needed into the molecular mechanisms of the GH/IGF1 axis in regulating adipokine secretion and FGF23 plasma levels.

Reference
Belceanu AD, Bîlha ŞC, Leuştean L, et al. Changes in body composition, adipokines, ghrelin, and FGF23 in growth hormone-deficient children during rhGH therapy. Endokrynol Pol. 2024;doi: 10.5603/ep.98923. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 38923900.

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